Ceiling fan is a Single phase Induction motor.
Motor principle, whenever current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field-it experiences force.
Stator: supplied by 1-phase voltage, current will produce in the stator winding-so magnetic field.
Now we have magnetic field.
We need current carrying conductor:
Because of Induction, voltage will develop in rotor as It is a closed circuit current will produce-so current carrying conductorp laced in magnetic field.
Rotor will rotate.